PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
lundi 25 septembre 2017
icar Vesion française
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THEME: Axis 3 - Markers of teachning situations

Following resources were designed to help teachers to characterize the type of activities in order to adapt the way of “staging” them in their classroom. These resources are called “marker (balises in French)”. A “marker” works like a conspicuous signal for teacher. These markers can be relevant for diverse categories of classroom situations or activities and aim at helping the teachers to manage them; consequently they address a rather “small” component of teachers’ actions.
Each marker has two parts: its advantage and its risks. For example “Maker A” is directly associated to a type of activity which aims at helping students to observe the material situation (experiment) under investigation in a relevant way for the question and to learn the words and sentences to describe it in terms of objects and events without using physics concepts. Its title is “students are not explicitly invited to refer to a model” means that the activity does not involve explicit theoretical concepts. The advantages proposed are based on learning hypotheses: students do not know how describing an experiment in a relevant physics way, they need to learn it. The risks deal with teachers’ points of view: teacher should not discredit this type of activity thinking that they are too easy for students.
Three other markers correspond to teaching activities where the students use concepts already known, discover or are invited to construct a new theoretical element.
Other markers deal with a difficult component of physics teaching: the risk of arbitrariness of presenting an experiment and its interpretation without specifying the approximations and the physicist’s choices which lead the teacher to select it. For example teachers are told to be careful when they generalize a model to its whole field of validity because this generalization includes a part of arbitrariness and can unsettle students. Students’ feeling of arbitrariness of physics is a part of students’ de-motivation to study this discipline.

Each marker is illustrated by several linked activities (from the teaching part) (in blue under the description of each marker).

Parts and activities

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  • Partie n°1: Markers, Role of Model
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    Markers, Role of Model

    The focus on modelling invite to classify teachning activities with this point of view. We propose a classification which indicate the chronologic relationship between the material situation and the model. For each "Marker", we give some advantges and risks.

     
  • Partie n°2: Marker, Type of experiment
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    Marker, Type of experiment

    Nous catégorisons dans cette partie les situations d’enseignement selon le type d’expérience au sens large en jeu (effectivement réalisée par l’élève ou par l’enseignant, simulée à l’ordinateur, ou simplement évoquée). Les situations au cours desquelles l’élève dispose de matériel sur lequel il peut intervenir à son gré sont motivantes quelle que soit la richesse de l’activité expérimentale. Il peut en effet prendre des initiatives et laisser s’exprimer son imagination souvent beaucoup plus riche que ne le pense l’enseignant.
    Les activités de modélisation, d’interprétation ou de prédiction qui accompagnent les activités expérimentales constituent une phase essentielle de l’apprentissage de la physique et de la chimie. Elles sont l’occasion pour l’élève d’apprendre à différencier le monde des objets/événements de celui des théories/modèles, d’apprendre à les mettre en relation, de donner du sens aux éléments du modèle en vigueur. Le fait de disposer effectivement du matériel et d’y avoir accès à sa guise pour tester sa compréhension de la situation par retouches successives est indispensable à l’apprentissage attendu.